Bible Dictionaries and Commentaries Online

The following is a list of major Bible Dictionaries and Commentaries that, with a few exceptions, have been published between 1990 and 2005 and that are now available for online borrowing at archive.org.

A ø before the hyperlink indicates that a work is available through the Global Digital Theological Library if one has a barcode. Seminaries in the majority world can subscribe to the Global DTL for a reasonable rate and can then provide their faculty and students with the required barcode.

Bible Dictionaries

General Bible Dictionaries

IVP Bible Dictionaries

  • Dictionary of the Old Testament: Historical Books, øA-Z
  • Dictionary of the Old Testament: Wisdom, Poetry, and Writings, øA-Z
  • Dictionary of New Testament Background, A-Z, øA-Z
  • Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, 2nd ed., øA-Z; 1st ed., A-Z
  • Dictionary of Paul and His Letters, øA-Z
  • Dictionary of the Later New Testament & Its Developments, A-Z, øA-Z

Specialized Bible Dictionaries

  • Collegeville Pastoral Dictionary of Biblical Theology, A-Z
  • Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation, A-J, K-Z
  • Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 2nd ed., A-Z
  • Dictionary of Scripture and Ethics, A-Z

Bible Commentaries

One-Volume Commentaries

Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible
The International Bible Commentary
The Oxford Bible Commentary

Old Testament Commentaries

Genesis: NIB; Alter; Brueggemann Interpretation
scholarly: Von Rad OTL; Wenham WBC 1-15, 16-50; Westermann CC 1-11
traditional: Midrash Rabbah 1-22, 23-50; Augustine 1-3; Luther 1-5, 6-14, 15-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-37, 38-44, 45-50

Exodus: NIB; Alter; Fretheim Interpretation; Smith New Collegeville Bible Commentary
scholarly: Propp AB 19-40; Davies ICC ø1-10, ø11-18; Utzschneider IECOT 1-15; Childs OTL
traditional: Midrash Rabbah

Leviticus: NIB; Alter
scholarly: Milgrom AB 1-16, 17-22, 23-27; Gerstenberger OTL

Numbers: NIB; Alter
scholarly: Levine AB 1-20, 21-36
traditional: Targum Neofiti 1; Midrash Rabbah 1-7, 7-35

Deuteronomy: NIB; Alter
scholarly: Weinfeld AB 1-11; Christensen WBC 1-21; 21-34
traditional: Targum Neofiti 1; Targum Onqelos; Targum Pseudo-Jonathan; Midrash Rabbah; Luther

Joshua: NIB
scholarly: Dozeman AYB 1-12
traditional: ACCS

Judges: NIB
scholarly: Sasson AYB 1-12; Webb NICOT; Niditch OTL
traditional: ACCS

Ruth: NIB
scholarly: Hubbard NICOT
traditional: ACCS

1 Samuel: NIB; Alter
scholarly: Tsumura NICOT; Klein WBC
traditional: ACCS

2 Samuel: NIB; Alter
traditional: ACCS

1 Kings: NIB;
scholarly: Cogan AB

2 Kings: NIB
scholarly: Cogan/Tadmor AB; Long FOTL

1 Chronicles: NIB; Selman TOTC
scholarly: Klein Hermeneia

2 Chronicles: NIB
scholarly: Klein Hermeneia

Ezra: NIB

Nehemiah: NIB

Esther: NIB
scholarly: Levenson OTL
traditional: Midrash Rabbah

Job: NIB; Alter
scholarly: Gray; Seow; Hartley NICOT

Psalms: NIB; Alter; Bullock TT 1-72; Clifford AOTC 73-150
scholarly: Kraus CC 1-59; Gerstenberg FOTL 1-60; Hossfeld/Zenger Hermeneia 51-100, 101-150; Craigie WBC 1-50
traditional: Midrash 1-72; ACCS 1-50; Diodore of Tarsus 1-51; Augustine 1-33; 34-51; Luther 1-75, 76-126

Proverbs: NIB; Alter
scholarly: Fox AB 1-9, AYB 10-31; Waltke NICOT 1-15, 15-31

Ecclesiastes: NIB; Alter
scholarly: Seow AB; Krüger Hermeneia; Longman NICOT; Weeks øICC
traditional: Luther

Song of Songs: NIB
scholarly: Pope AB; Murphy Hermeneia; Longman NICOT
traditional: Luther
traditional: Midrash Rabbah

Isaiah: NIB; Seitz Interpretation 1-39; Brueggemann Westminster Bible Companion 40-66
backgrounds: ZIBBC
scholarly: Blenkinsopp AB 1-39, 40-55; Roberts Hermeneia 1-39; Baltzer Hermeneia 40-55; Williamson ICC ø1-5, ø6-12; Goldingay/Payne ICC ø44-55; Oswalt NICOT 1-39;
traditional: ACCS 40-66; Luther 40-66

Jeremiah: NIB; Bracke Westminster Bible Companion 1-29; ITC 26-52; backgrounds: ZIBBC
scholarly: Holladay Hermeneia 26-52; McKane ICC 1-25, 26-52; Fretheim SHBC

Lamentations: NIB; NCB
backgrounds: ZIBBC
scholarly: Hillers AB (2nd ed.); Salters øICC
traditional: Midrash Rabbah

Ezekiel: NIB; Clements Westminster Bible Companion
backgrounds: ZIBBC
scholarly: Greenberg AB 1-20; Cook AYB ø38-48; Block NICOT 1-24, 25-48; Zimmerli Hermeneia 1-24, 25-48

Daniel: NIB; Longman NIVAC
scholarly: Collins Hermeneia
backgrounds: ZIBBC

Hosea: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Andersen/Freedman AB; Dearman NICOT
traditional: Luther

Joel: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Crenshaw AB; Wolff Hermeneia
traditional: Luther

Amos: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Andersen/Freedman AB; Eidevall øAYB; Wolff Hermeneia; Paul Hermeneia
textual: BHHB
traditional: Luther

Obadiah: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Raabe AB
traditional: Luther

Jonah: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Sasson AB
traditional: Luther

Micah: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Andersen/FreedmanAB; Hillers Hermeneia
traditional: Luther

Nahum: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Christensen AYB
traditional: Luther

Habakkuk: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Andersen AB
traditional: Luther

Zephaniah: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Berlin AB; Sweeney Hermeneia
traditional: Luther

Haggai: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Meyers/Meyers AB
traditional: Luther

Zechariah: NIB; Sweeney BerO
scholarly: Meyers/Meyers AB 1-8, 9-14; Redditt IECOT 9-14

Malachi: NIB; Sweeney BerO
textual: BHHB
traditional: Luther

New Testament Commentaries

Matthew: NIB; Bruner 1-12
scholarly: Turner BECNT; Luz Hermeneia 1-7, 8-20, 21-28; Davies/Allison ICC 1-7; France NICNT; Hagner WBC 1-13
traditional: Hilary of Poitiers; Luther 1-18, 19-24, 5-7,

Mark: NIB;
scholarly: Mann AB; Yarbro Collins Hermeneia; France NIGTC; Moloney

Luke: NIB
scholarly: Fitzmyer AB 1-9, 10-24; Bovon Hermeneia 1-9, 9-19, 19-24; Green NICNT
textual: BHGNT

John: NIB; Burge NIVAC
scholarly: McHugh ICC ø1-4; Michaels NICNT; Thompson NTL; Bruner
traditional: SNonnus of Nisibis; Luther 14-16, 17-20

Acts: NIB
scholarly: Fitzmyer AB; Conzelmann Hermeneia; Pervo Hermeneia; Holladay NTL; Keener 1-2, 3-14

Romans: NIB; Mounce NAC
scholarly: Fitzmyer AB; Jewett Hermeneia; Dunn WBC 9-16
traditional: Abelard; Luther

1 Corinthians: NIB; Paideia
scholarly: Fitzmyer AYB; Fee NICNT

2 Corinthians: NIB
scholarly: Barnett NICNT

Galatians: NIB; Tarazi
scholarly: Moo BECNT; Betz Hermeneia
traditional: Jerome;Luther

Ephesians: NIB
scholarly: Barth AB 1-3; Thielman BECNT

Philippians: NIB
scholarly: Reumann AYB

Colossians: NIB
scholarly: Barth/Blanke AB

1 Thessalonians: NIB
scholarly: Fee NICNT

2 Thessalonians: NIB
scholarly: Fee NICNT

1 Timothy: NIB
scholarly: Johnson AB
traditional: Luther

2 Timothy: NIB
scholarly: Johnson AB

Titus: NIB

Philemon: NIB

Hebrews: NIB; NIVAC
scholarly: KoesterAB; Attridge Hermeneia; Cockerill NICNT; Ellingworth NIGTC

James: NIB; Paideia
scholarly: Johnson AB; Allison øICC

1 Peter: NIB; Watson Paideia
scholarly: Elliott AB

2 Peter: NIB; Callan Paideia
scholarly: Neyrey AB
textual: BHGNT

1 John: NIB; Johnson NIBC
scholarly: Strecker Hermeneia

2 John: NIB; Johnson NIBC
scholarly: Strecker Hermeneia

3 John: NIB; Johnson NIBC
scholarly: Strecker Hermeneia

Jude: NIB; Paideia; textual: BHGNT
scholarly: Neyrey AB

Revelation: NIB; Interpretation
scholarly: Beale NIGTC
traditional: Andrew of Caesarea; Būlus al-Būshī ø1-3; Ibn Kātib Qayṣar ø1-3


  • AB: Anchor Bible
  • ACCS: Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture
  • AYB: Anchor Yale Bible
  • BECNT: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
  • BHGNT: Baylor Handbook on the Greek New Testament
  • BHHB: Baylor Handbook on the Hebrew Bible
  • CC: Continental Commentary series
  • ICC: International Critical Commentary
  • IECOT: International Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament
  • NIB: New Interpreter’s Bible
  • NICNT: New International Commentary on the New Testament
  • NICOT: New International Commentary on the Old Testament
  • WBC: Word Biblical Commentary